After updating your Windows password (used for your email account), you will need to update this password on your phone as well. For iPhones, we have found that it's easier to just delete the email account and then add it again. This will automatically ask for the new password. The phone will eventually ask for the new password if you wait, but this can take a long time. Below are the instructions to delete and then add an email account.
To delete account:
1) Click on Settings
2) Scroll down and click on Passwords & Accounts
3) Click on your Work email account
4) Scroll down and select "Delete Account"
To add account again:
Directions in link below